Cyprus took its name from a word meaning "copper" in Latin. This name may be due to the fact that there are rich copper mines. Cyprus is located in the northeast of the Mediterranean Sea. 71 km (44 mil) from Turkey and 98 km (60.8 mil) from Syria. Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean. Its size is 9251 km2 (3,571 square miles). The Five Finger mountains extend along the northern coast of the island. In the south, the Troodos mountains include the island's water reservoir.
The climate of Cyprus is the Mediterranean climate. Summers are hot and dry, winters are mild and rainy. In January, the average heat is 10 °C and in July the average is 26 °C. There is a temperature difference between the coastal areas and the inner parts. Typical vegetation is green in all seasons. There are citrus groves, olive groves and vineyards. For this reason, it is also called ''Yeşil Ada'' Green Island. In ancient times, the nations that wanted to have the Mediterranean basin and trade in Cyprus, whose name was Alasya and Alasia, ruled and changed continuously. The island has geopolitical importance throughout the ages. Cyprus, Syria, Palestine, Anatolia, Greece, Lebanon and Egypt due to trade routes on the island: Ancient Egypt, Assyrian, Persian, Roman, Umayyad, Byzantine, during the Crusades 1. Richard (Richard the Lion Heart) to Egypt the Mamluk Turkish Sultans, was subject to the Venetians (ruled). The Ottoman Empire took Cyprus from the Venetians in 1571. Turkmens from Southern Anatolia were placed on the island. In 1878, the island management was temporarily left to England by agreement. When the Ottoman State entered World War I in 1914; Britain has declared Island to be a colony of the British Empire.
With the London and Zurich Agreements made between the UK-Turkey-Greece in 16/08/1960 in Cyprus a Greek-Turkish Republic (Republic of Cyprus) was declared. Turkish and Greek was the official language instead of English.
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