The Greek Cypriots and Greek officers on the island undertook a coup d'état under the leadership of Nikos Sampson for the purpose of connecting Cyprus to Greece (Enosis) (July 15, 1974). President Makarios took refuge in the British base (Agratur) on the island. The constitution was virtually eliminated. Turkey in order to ensure the safety of Turks on the island by using the guarantor of rights arising from the London and Zurich agreements sent troops to the island. It took the northernmost of island (36.5% - 3355 square kilometers). The Greeks in the north took refuge in the south and the Turks in the south took refuge in the north. Thus, de facto, the two societies were separated, Cyprus was divided into two. On 13 February 1975, the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus was established in the Turkish part.
The negotiations for reunification between the Turkish community and the Greeks could not be concluded. Turkish society refused to be a minority. The Turks declared independence on 15 November 1983 with the name of "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus". After this date, the Turkish and Greek community could not agree in the negotiations.
The defacto population of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is 294.396 (December 2011). The official language is Turkish and is widely spoken in English. Nicosia is the capital of both the TRNC and Southern Cyprus. It is the only divided capital in the world. The TRNC is a secular, democratic state of law. In the country where multi-party democracy is practiced, the 50-member Republican Assembly, the President, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers appointed by the President. The parliamentary elections are held every five years.
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